B.A. (1965) Williams College, Chemistry
Ph.D. (1969) The Pennsylvania State Univ. (Chemistry)
Evaluation of Mars Soil Analog Materials by chemical and spectral (reflectance spectroscopy) means coupled with head space gas chromatography of simulations of the Viking Biology experiments in order to draw conclusions regarding the composition and structure of the Martian soil, its water content, and its relationship to the geochemistry, atmosphere volatile cycles, and possible primitive exobiological and organic processes of the planet.